Culture plays a role in determining the vulnerability of the poor for depression in a number of ways, such as the caste system of South Asia which relegates a section of the population to subservient roles or the economic disadvantages faced by ethnic minorities in multicultural societies across the world.
However, it is unclear whether depression is primariry a cause, consequence, or both in these associations due Cross cultural depression the possibility of reciprocal causation between income-earnings and MDD People from different parts of the world have different patterns of genes and, often, different patterns of disease to which they are vulnerable.
Similarly, depressed Japanese individuals often complain of abdominal, headache, and neck pain symptoms.
Based on these observations, there is good reason to believe that MDD might be a causal risk factor for at least some chronic physical disorders. A recent US study found that only about half of workers with MDD received treatment in the year of interview and that fewer than half of treated workers received treatment consistent with published treatment guidelines East-Asian participants did report a significantly higher level of somatic symptoms when reporting through the spontaneous interview and structured clinical interview.
Of the structured interviews, the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule CISRwhich was specifically developed for the measurement of common mental disorders in community and primary care settings 23has been widely used in studies in the international context.
ILLNESS COURSE Few large-scale longitudinal general population studies of major depression exist, but clinical studies show that a substantial proportion of people who seek treatment for major depression have a chronic-recurrent course of illness 42 Financial success One of most striking aspects of the Cross cultural depression associated with MDD is that the personal earnings and household income of people with MDD are substantially lower than those of people without depression 3545567278 Causal effects of low income on depression have been documented in quasi-experimental studies of job loss Median AOO was similar for high income and low-middle income countries If emotional disturbances are not considered within the realm of disease, depressed individuals might not readily seek out psychiatric or mental health care for depressive symptoms.
Also, it is the only study to use three assessment tools spontaneous report of problems during unstructured discussion with doctor; clinician-rated symptoms in a structured clinical interview; and a symptom rating scale in questionnaire form translated into both English and Chinese Mandarin and modified to address cross-cultural differences.
Sociologists study how people get along together in groups. Education Several studies show early-onset mental disorders associated termination of education 1315546879, However, long-term longitudinal studies also show that some people with lifetime MDD fail to report their history of depression in cross-section studies 85 However, it has been suggested that depression is to some extent an illness of affluence The priorities for international research on depression need to move well beyond its focus on examining cultural influences on depression to action-oriented research which serves to inform regional health policy and practice 4.
As might be expected, prescription of psychotropics was maximum in those patients whose mental disorder was recognised by the physician; recognition, in turn, was influenced by the severity of symptoms and the presence of overt psychological symptoms. The impairment scores represented the difference in mean impairment scores of respondents with month MDE compared to those with no lifetime history of MDE in the survey.
Because the public discourse regarding depression is more prevalent in Western societies, it is more socially acceptable to have depression, and more people are willing to seek help.
Methodological studies reviewed here find no evidence that the substantial cross-national variation in prevalence estimates reviewed here, with the highest prevalence estimates found in some of the wealthiest countries in the world, is due as methodological factors, adding indirect support to a substantive interpretation of observed cross-national differences in MDE prevalence estimates.
If someone from this type of culture encounters a social stressor which forces a change in roles or a challenge to the status quo i. Cultural identity often influences the degree to which a particular individual shows somatic physical symptoms of depression.
Thus, typical psychological symptoms such as loss of interest in daily or social activities, suicidal thoughts, poor concentration and anxiety or worry can are experienced by the majority of patients.
A consistent pattern was found in these surveys across countries and socio-demographic subgroups within countries for MDD to be associated with a larger decrement in perceived health than any of the four physical disorders compared with it angina, arthritis, asthma, diabetes.
However, few of these studies adjusted for comorbidity.
In the low-middle income countries, in comparison, income was not significantly related to MDE. As a result of this debate, culture became firmly ensconced as a key variable in psychiatric epidemiology, particularly when the research was based in non-Western societies. Another set of surveys examined comparative decrements in perceived health associated with a wide range of disorders 377 Employment status Although depression is known to be associated with unemployment, most research on this association has emphasized the impact of job loss on depression rather than depression as a risk factor for job loss Previously, it was thought that depression primarily plagued people in developed "Western" nations and that non-Euro-American cultures did not suffer from this disorder.
These studies typically find that MDD is associated with among the highest number of days out of role at the societal level of any physical or mental disorder due to its combination of comparatively high prevalence and comparatively strong individual-level association 2688Cross-Cultural Studies of Depression Janis H.
Jenkins Case Western Reserve University Arthur Kleinman Byron J.
Good Harvard Medical School CROSS-CULTURAL ASPECTS OF DEPRESSION: INTRODUCTION In this chapter we examine key questions that arise from a cross-cultural ap proach to the study of depression. Also, it is the only study to use three assessment tools (spontaneous report of problems during unstructured discussion with doctor; clinician-rated symptoms in a structured clinical interview; and a symptom rating scale in questionnaire form) translated into both English and Chinese (Mandarin) and modified to address cross-cultural differences.
Online Assessment Measures. For further clinical evaluation and research, the APA is offering a number of “emerging measures” in Section III of DSM–5. These patient assessment measures were developed to be administered at the initial patient interview and to monitor treatment progress, thus serving to advance the use of initial.
It seems that the perception of the causes and symptoms of depression and appropriate anti-depressive behaviour is mediated by cultural values and beliefs that the individual has been exposed to in their formative years, which subsequently affects their tendency to recognise, report and seek help for depression.
Epidemiological data are reviewed on the prevalence, course, socio-demographic correlates, and societal costs of major depression throughout the world.
Major depression is estimated in these surveys to be a commonly-occurring disorder. Kirmayer L: Beyond the "New Cross-cultural Psychiatry": Cultural Biology, Discursive Psychology and the Ironies of Globalization. Transcultural Psychiatry.43 (1): / View Article PubMed Google Scholar; Kleinman A, Good B: Culture and Depression.Download