They can express algebraic operations in notation similar to mathematics and allow the use of subprograms Computer languages package commonly used operations for reuse. High level languages ignore the unimportant details found in low level languages. The language enables a computer user to dictate what commands the computer must perform to process data.
An attempt to perform an operation on the wrong type of value raises an error. Like LISP described in the next sectionALGOL had recursive subprograms—procedures that could Computer languages themselves to solve a problem by reducing it to a smaller problem of the same kind.
However, this language is not flexible because the user cannot reuse the set of codes written using this language. Complete type inference has traditionally been associated with less mainstream languages, such as Haskell and ML.
Machine language instructions typically use some bits to represent operations, such as addition, and some to represent operands, or perhaps the location of the next instruction.
While constructed languages are also artificial languages designed from the ground up with a specific purpose, they lack the precise and complete semantic definition that a programming language has.
In the second case, the compiler infers the types of expressions and declarations based on context. The earliest programming languages were tied very closely to the underlying hardware of the computer.
While syntax is commonly specified using a formal grammar, semantic definitions may be written in natural language e. See compile and interpreter for more information about these two methods. Its control structures included conditional IF statements, repetitive loops so-called DO loopsand a GOTO statement that allowed nonsequential execution of program code.
It uses a compact notation and provides the programmer with the ability to operate with the addresses of data as well as with their values. Strong and static are now generally considered orthogonal concepts, but usage in the literature differs. There are many ways of defining execution semantics.
It allows the programmer to perform several tasks like registry access, memory management and clock cycle correspondence. With the assembly level language, it is easier for a programmer to define commands because he has the prerogative when it comes to naming the variables.
A significant amount of academic research went into formal semantics of programming languageswhich allow execution semantics to be specified in a formal manner. Each different type of CPU has its own unique machine language. For example, the semantics may define the strategy by which expressions are evaluated to values, or the manner in which control structures conditionally execute statements.
The compiler generates a binary file, or executable file, that the CPU will execute. Programs must balance speed, size, and simplicity on systems ranging from microcontrollers to supercomputers. Although there have been attempts to design one "universal" programming language that serves all purposes, all of them have failed to be generally accepted as filling this role.
In contrast, an untyped language, such as most assembly languagesallows any operation to be performed on any data, which are generally considered to be sequences of bits of various lengths.
Standard library and run-time system[ edit ] Main article: Many languages allow a function called an exception handler to be written to handle this exception and, for example, always return "-1" as the result. Lying above high-level languages are languages called fourth-generation languages usually abbreviated 4GL.
Static versus dynamic typing[ edit ] In static typingall expressions have their types determined prior to when the program is executed, typically at compile-time. As new programming languages have developed, features have been added that let programmers express ideas that are more remote from simple translation into underlying hardware instructions.
Although this appears awkward, the notation works well for computers.Computer programming language, any of various languages for expressing a set of detailed instructions for a digital computer. Such instructions can be executed directly when they are in the computer manufacturer-specific numerical form known as machine language, after a simple substitution process.
A programming language is a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer or computing device to perform specific tasks.
The term programming language usually refers to high-level languages, such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, Java, FORTRAN, Ada, and. The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order.
Dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages are not included.Download